How do I study electric fields and charges of class 12?

Definition of Electric Field: This is the point in space as per the force that will experience the small positive test charge when given at any point. This is defined in terms of force and thus force is known to be a vector. This also means that the vector fields are also known as force fields. These electric charges do act between two charges that has a gravitational field between two masses. Both the cases are very similar. They both follow the inverse law along with distance. We can deduce Columbus law based on this principle and thus for any stationary charge the electric field will be different to the source charge and also it can vary with the distance from the source. IF the source charges were doubled the electric filed will double.

Properties for Electric field:

  1. This nothing but a set of lines whose direction for any point is the same as the field direction. This concept was used by Michael Faraday. He used the terms lines of force and this concept is used still today.
  2. What is unique is that the strength of the field is similar to the lines density. What are the field lines -these are the paths for the point which have a charge which is positive and it moves around in the field and thus it can be compared to the trajectories which folly a gravitational field.
  3. The field lines have many important properties which include that it always originates from the charges which have positive charges and it always end on the negative charges. They can pass through the conductors at right angles and they never cross themselves.
  4. The spaces between the lines are always intervened by the field lines. We can draw more or fewer lines depending on the precision of the lines which describes the field.
  5. Electrostatic is the study of the electric charges between the forces. When Michael Faraday studied the law and described the relationship between the time sensitive magnetic field and the electric field. In some words for Faraday it can be described as the electric field which is equal to the negative time of the magnetic field. When the time sensitive magnetic field is not present then we call it conservative field.
  6. Thus there are two kinds of electric field that is electrostatic field and other is electromagnetic field. The study of the combined time varying magnetic and electric field is called electrodynamics. When the static electric field allows the use of electrostatics the magnetic fields which changes with time will be treated as a part of the electromagnetic field.

Electric Charge: This is the property of matter that will have a force when it is kept in an electromagnetic field. The electric charge can be positive or negative and these are carried by protons and electrons respectively.

Properties of Electric Charge:

  1. The like charges will repel and the unlike charges will attract.
  2. Any such object which does not have any charge will be considered neutral. Now the study of these charged particles is known as classical electrodynamics.
  3. Any electric charge can be considered to be a conserved property and the net charge for the following system will have the positive charge that subtracts the negative charge.
  4. The electric charges are carried by some particles but in some layman terms the negative charges will be carried by electrons and positive charges by protons. This happens in the atom nucleus.All the electric charges will produce some sort of electric fields. There is also a hint of magnetic field which is created but it done so by the charge which is moving.
  5. The whole interaction between the electric charges in the electromagnetic field which is nothing but a combination of electric and magnetic fields is actually the source of all the fundamental forces in the world of Physics. Thus from here we go to the field of Quantum physics.
  6. The electric charge is thus quantified and it comes in some integers in multiple forms of small units called the elementary charge. This is the smallest charge which exists in the free state. These small particles are called quarks. These small particles always combine to form particles with some charge and here the electrons have negative charge and the protons have a positive charge.

Question:A point charge q is placed at a distance a//2 directly above the center of a square of side a. The electric flux through the square is?